"A scientist who is also a human being cannot rest, while knowledge, which might reduce suffering rests on the shelf”
Dr Albert B. Sabin, developer of the oral polio vaccine; http://sabin. [Found and taken from the web-cite of a colleague. Thanks]
PREVENTION ALZHEIMER INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION
THE GOAL OF THIS INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION IS TO HELP RESEARCH WITHOUT FRONTIERS FOR THE PREVENTION OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AND HELP RESEARCH ON CHRONIC/LATE LYME DISEASE
DR Judith Miklossy who is the Director of this international foundation and research center is one of the pioneers in this domain of research.
IT IS ONLY TOGETHER, WITH HELP OF THE SOCIETY, PRIVATE ORGANOSATIONS, GOVERNEMENTS AND INDIVIDUAL DONATIONS THAT WE CAN GO FASTER AHEAD.
PREVENTION ALZHEIMER FOUNDATION
Bank account of the foundation:
Actualities from June to December 2012
CHRONIC OR LATE LYME DISEASE
In the framework of an international effort, a special issue with the participation of internationally recognized experts critically and constructively overviewed the clinical and pathological aspects of Lyme neuroborreliosis and showed directions for future practice and research
This special issue gives a framework of an international effort, to critically and constructively overview the clinical and pathological aspects of Lyme neuroborreliosis and show directions for future practice and research. Borrelia burgdorferi in association with tertiary brain lesions were reported by many authors. These observations indicate that similarly to Tre-ponema pallidum, Borrelia burgdorferi infection is directly involved in the late or chronic manifestations of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Chronic or late Lyme neuroborreliosis both refer to tertiary neuroborreliosis, therefore, the use of these terms as different entities is not justified and may lead to confusion.
Judith Miklossy Chronic or Late Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Analysis of Evidence Compared
Whether spirochetes persist in affected host tissues and cause the late/chronic manifestations of neurosyphilis was the subject of long-lasting debate. Detection of a direct link between persisting infection and tertiary manifestations of neurosyphilis.Treponema pallidum in the brains of patients with general paresis established a link between persisting infection and tertiary manifestations of neurosyphilis.
Today, the same question is in the center of debate with respect to Lyme disease. The goal of this review was to compare the established pathological features of neurosyphilis with those available for Lyme neuroborreliosis. If the main tertiary forms of neurosyphilis also occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis and would indicate that the spirochete is responsible for the neuropsychiatric manifestations of late/chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis.
Late Lyme neuroborreliosis is accepted by all existing guidelines in Europe, US and Canada. The terms chronic and late are synonymous and both define tertiary neurosyphilis or tertiary Lyme neuroborreliosis. The use of chronic and late Lyme neuroborreliosis as different entities is inaccurate and can be confusing. Further pathological investigations and the detection of spirochetes in infected tissues and body fluids are strongly needed.
August - September 2011
Increasing amount of data indicate that spirochetes are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Here we review historic and new data related to the involvement of spirochetes in Alzheimer's disease. All positive and negative data are included. The goal was to critically analyze the association and causality between spirochetes and Alzheimer's disease, based on the substantial amount of data available and on established objective criteria of Koch and Hill
F1000 evaluation: "An infectious origin of Alzheimer'sdisease has been suggested for many decades. In a wonderfully synthetic review, a convincing role for neurospirochetesis made. This review opens a new perspective on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases."
Miklossy J. Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria. J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Aug 4;8:90
It is established that chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, brain atrophy and amyloid deposition in late neurosyphilis. Recently it has been suggested that various types of spirochetes, in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum, could cause dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we review all data available in the literature on the detection of spirochetes in AD and critically analyze the association and causal relationship between spirochetes and AD following established criteria of Koch and Hill. The results show a statistically significant association between spirochetes and AD (P = 1.5 x 10-17, OR = 20, 95% CI = 8-60, N = 247).
In this review all pathogens (bacteria and viruses) were considered. All positive and negative data were included. In addition to the critical review of available data, the molecular mechanisms involved in chronic slowly progressive infectious dementia and suggestions for future investigations are included.
Chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, cortical
Amyloid beta, which is the most important biological marker of Alzheimer's disease, revealed to be an anttimicrobial peptide (AMP) following an excellent team work between several Universities such as Mass. General Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease and Dept. of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden and Boston University, Boston, MA.
Soscia SJ, Kirby JE, Washicosky KJ, Tucker SM, Ingelsson M, Hyman B, Burton MA, Goldstein LE, Duong S, Tanzi RE, Moir RD. The Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid beta-Protein Is an Antimicrobial Peptide. PLoS One. 2010 Mar 3;5(3):e9505
September 2008 Diabetes type 2 - similarities to Alzheimer's disease
There is a strong association between Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent observations show a seroprevalance of various infectious agents in type 2 diabetes. The association of periodontal disorders, which are polybacterial disorders, with Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes suggests that infection and local inflammation can play an important role in these chronic age related disorders.
The following manuscript shows for the first time that d various chronic bacterial infections and local inflammation can play an important role in type 2 diabetes. Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylorii and spirochetes (probably, as in Alzheimer's disease, various types of spirochetes, including periodontal and intestinal spirochetes ) are amoung the candidate pathogens. Antibiotics together with antiinflammatory drugs may slow down and prevent the disease.
Miklossy J, Martins RN, Darbinian N, Khalili K, McGeer PL. Type 2 diabetes: Local inflammation and direct effect of bacterial toxic products. Open Pathol J, 2008, 2: 86-95.
Miklossy J, Kasas S, Zurn AD, McCall S, Yu S, McGeer PL. Persisting atypical and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis
This work shows the presence and persistence of atypical pleomorphic and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi in the brains of three patients with neuropathologically and serologically confirmed Lyme neuroborreliosis. Borrelia burgdorferi was also cultivated from the brains of these patients. The in vivo observed pleomorphic forms of Borrelia spirochetes were identical to those induced in vitro.
The persistence of these more resistant spirochete forms and their intracellular location in host cells, (neurons and glial cells) may be one of those factors, which are responsible for the long latent stage of the disease and the persistence of Borrelia infection. The results also indicate that Borrelia burgdorferi can induce cellular dysfunction and apoptosis.
The abundant HLA-DR activated microglia and reactive astrocytes in the infected brain are indicative of Borrelia induced chronic local inflammation. The detection and recognition of atypical, cystic and granular forms of Borrelia burgdorferi in infected tissues is essential for the diagnosis and the treatment of Lyme disease as they can occur in the absence of typical spiral Borrelia form.
These results suggest that in such cases an adequate and more prolonged antibiotic therapy may be necessary.
ALZHEIMER DISEASE - THE ATROPHIC FORM OF LATE NEUROSPIROCHETOSES
THE INVOLVEMENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF SPIROCHETES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED AND ANALYZED IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE! BORRELIA BURGDORFERI IS ONLY ONE OF THEM. PERIODONTAL ORAL TREPONEMA SPIROCHETES ARE HIGHLY PREVALENT IN THE POPULATION AT LARGE AND MAY BE FREQUENT CANDIDATES IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. INTESTINAL SPIROCHETES AND SPIROCHETES OF THE UROGENITAL TRACTS AND VARIOUS OTHER BORRELIA SPIROCHETES MAY ALL BE INVOLVED IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE. THEREFORE STUDIES CONSIDERING AND ANALYZING BORRELIA BURGDORFERI ALONE CAN BE DISAPPOINTING. SUCH STUDIES CANNOT EXCLUDE OR REINFORCE THE INVOLVEMENT OF BORRELIA BURGDORFERI IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.
To analyze the involvement of Borrelia burgdorferi in Alzheimer patients who have a positive serology for Borrelia burgdorferi is essential. If we would like to analyze the involvement of Treponema pallidum in a population with dementia without syphilis we would never succeed, despite that it has been known from a century that this spirochete can cause dementia.
In those studies who failed to show the involvement of Borrelia burgdorferi in Alzheimer's disease, the Alzheimer's patients investigated had no positive serology for Borrelia burgdorferi indicating, these these patients did not suffer from Lyme disease. However in those studies where Borrelia burgdorferi was found to be implicated in Alzheimer's disease, Borrelia spirochetes were cultivated in BSK medium from the brains (MacDonald 1987, Miklossy, 1993, Miklossy 1994, 2004) and/or the patients showed a positive serology for Lyme disease (Miklossy et al., 2004; Miklossy, 2007 ) or a positive PCR for Borrelia burgdorferi (Riviere et al., 2004).
The goal of our initial studies was not to show the involvement of Borrelia burgdorferi alone in Alzheimer's disease but to show that several types of spirochetes of the order Spirochaetales are involved in Alzheimer disease, including Borrelia burgdorferi (Miklossy, 1993-1996, Miklossy et al 1994-2011). The title of the report clearly indicates: Alzheimer's disease - A spirochetosis? and not Alzheimer's disease - A neuroborreliosis? In addition, the hypothesis was based on the observation, that in the brain of a demented patient with atrophic general paresis - used as positive control for the detection of spirochetes - the silver technique for spirochetes revealed the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. At high magnification the regular spiral form and the atypical forms of Treponema pallidum clearly showed that the plaques are made up of Treponema spirochetes and correspond to spirochetal masses. Recently, the local cortical amyloid deposit in the atrophic form of general paresis was characterized and, as in Alzheimer disease, corresponds to beta-amyloid.
Those who were analyzing all types of spirochetes including oral periodontal pathogen Treponemas, which are expected to be frequent candidates (Miklossy, 1993; Riviere et al, 2004) detected spirochetes in more than 90% of the Alzheimer's cases analyzed.
It is known that spirochetes frequently co-infect with other bacteria. Therefore, the consideration of co-infecting pathogens in Alzheimer's disease is also important.
The accumulated old historic and new observations and the fact that Fischer suggested (1907) and Alois Alzheimer and his colleagues cited Fischer's suggestion and stated that Fischer was not able to cultivate the microorgansisms. We should remember that Treponema pallidum cannot be cultivated and maintained in synthetic medium even today.